By Alison R. Bernstein
The effect of global conflict II on Indian affairs used to be extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes less than Eisenhower. concentrating on the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ global battle II studies in conflict and at the domestic entrance.
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Additional info for American Indians and World War II: toward a new era in Indian affairs
In 1940 it was not at all clear that the reservation could deliver on Collier's promises of a new dawn of Indian self-sufficiency and cultural autonomy. As anthropologists, demographers, physicians, conservationists, and educators surveyed Indian life in America, they uncovered data which suggested that many reservations, far from producing a better life for the Indian, held Indians in perpetual poverty. They concluded that while Collier was well intentioned, the federal government had overestimated the resources of reservations and had underestimated the complexity of the Indians' land problems.
Page 19 Glaring inequalities in the legal status of Indians persisted during the New Deal. In 1938 seven states refused to let Indians vote. 64 Moreover, tribes had to receive special legislative permission to sue the federal government for noncompliance with treaty agreements. To remedy this situation, Commissioner Collier proposed the establishment of a commission to hear Indian claims against the government, but he was blocked by the Justice Department and the Bureau of the Budget. Throughout the decade of the thirties, the Indian Bureau worked to develop legislation which would put tribal marriage and divorce on an equal legal footing with those of non-Indians and clarify the status of Indians regarding tax exemptions.
A majority of Indians lacked the capital to acquire the seed, fertilizer, equipment, and livestock needed to revitalize their land-based economy. 51 The reservation was not bringing prosperity to the Indian people. When farming and grazing did not provide a livelihood, there were few alternatives. Indians lacked the education and skills to find new forms of work. Despite strides made in broadening access to education during both the Hoover administration and the New Deal, nearly one- Page 16 quarter of all Indian males had no schooling as compared to 8 percent of the black population and just I percent of the total male population.
American Indians and World War II: toward a new era in Indian affairs by Alison R. Bernstein