By Khaled Fahmy
Whereas scholarship has normally seen Mehmed Ali Pasha because the founding father of sleek Egypt, Khaled Fahmy deals a brand new interpretation of his position within the upward thrust of Egyptian nationalism, firmly finding him in the Ottoman context as an bold, if difficult, Ottoman reformer. Basing his paintings on formerly ignored archival fabric, the writer demonstrates how Mehmed Ali sought to strengthen the Egyptian economic system and to accumulate the military, no longer as a method of gaining Egyptian independence from the Ottoman empire, yet to additional his personal goals for famous hereditary rule over the province. via targeting the military and the soldier’s day-by-day reviews, the writer constructs an in depth photograph of makes an attempt at modernization and reform, how they have been deliberate and carried out through a number of reformers, and the way the general public at huge understood and accommodated them. during this manner, the paintings contributes to the bigger methodological and theoretical debates touching on nation-building and the development of kingdom strength within the specific context of early nineteenth-century Egypt.
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Additional resources for All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt
Times, however, changed, and after your wealth and glory, you saw misery and weakness . . My heart was bleeding for you, and how could I remain still seeing you suffering under the tutelage of this Mamluk eyeing you like a tiger eyes his prey? Yet even in your difficulty and frailty you were noble, and in due time the power of this tyrant was eclipsed and you came out Victorious [al-Qdhira] again. And how couldn't you when God has sent you this genius, the son of Kavala? I could see him in his distant place of origin sitting for long hours fixing his eye on you, penetrating with his piercing insight the layers of time .
These then are the main questions that this book is interested in. To recapitulate: What was the nature of Egyptian society in the first half of the nineteenth century insofar as its national identity was concerned? How did the Pasha and his elite identify themselves: as a Turkishspeaking elite that ruled an Arabic-speaking province of the Ottoman Empire or as a proto-national elite that attempted to deliver Egypt from the heavy burden of the Ottoman yoke? How did the non-elite members of Egyptian society react to their rulers' struggles against the "men from Istanbul," as the officials of the central administration of the Ottoman Empire were referred to?
These monopolies were believed to have been the backbone of the Pasha's economic policy and to have given his industries the protection they needed to compete with European goods. Having lost that protection, the infant industries and the services connected to them fell to ruins. The second incident that is usually highlighted to stress how European efforts were most instrumental in aborting this impressive "experiment" in development was the firman of 1841 which was passed by the Ottoman Sultan but which was a result of European pressure.
All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt by Khaled Fahmy