By Gordon C. Oates
A complete insurance of the main actual recommendations that govern fuel turbine propulsion structures. subject matters comprise combustion know-how, engine/airplane functionality matching, inlets and inlet/engine integration, variable convergent/divergent nozzle aerodynamics, and extra.
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Extra resources for Aircraft Propulsion Systems Technology and Design (Aiaa Education Series)
22 Two-shaft jet engine. ~ 100 -I 90 ~- 80 ~E ~o 8 6o i i . line . 70i Equivalent speed, so N~ ~ I 11o percent design ' 70 80 90 100 40 i i 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Equivalent weight flow at outer-compressor inlet, percent design a) Outer-compressor performance map. 150 c O) "O e- 125 I I I I Flight Mach number, Altitude . 8 Stratosphere ~ I o" 100 75 I Operating l i n e ~ ~ / ~ Stall-limitline~'~''~'~/~1#/ Adiabatic efficiency, . . 70 Q. ¢. 1 O o 25 percent design ~70 8~ 90 100 110 I ] , I 40 60 80 100 120 Equivalent weight flow at outer-compressor inlet, percent design b) Inner-compressor performance map.
The early designers of steam turbines approached this problem by using two coefficients--one for flow rate and another for thrust. The same idea is currently used for engine thrust nozzles. ) Two coefficients are usually used in compressor design also--one for blockage and another for losses in total pressure. The total pressure coefficient is too often an arbitrary average that may or may not be related to either blockage or momentum, which has resulted in some errors. Moreover, the total pressure loss coefficient may not account for all of the loss--every nonuniform flow represents a potential loss because mixing always increases entropy.
Any change in specific power causes the operating point of each component to move. The principal variable causing this change is the ratio of turbine inlet to compressor inlet temperature, which we shall call the engine temperature ratio or ETR. Flight altitude, fuel flow, and flight Mach number are the determinants of this ratio. Note, however, that power and thrust are directly proportional to the inlet pressure unless low pressures reduce the Reynolds number beyond the point where component performance deteriorates.
Aircraft Propulsion Systems Technology and Design (Aiaa Education Series) by Gordon C. Oates