By Mark Evan Bonds
Beethoven solid a looming shadow over the 19th century. For composers he was once a version either to emulate and to beat. "You don't know the way it feels," Brahms confided, "when one continually hears the sort of huge marching in the back of one." Exploring the reaction of 5 composers--Berlioz, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms, and Mahler--to what each one basically observed because the problem of Beethoven's symphonies, Evan Bonds richly complements our knowing of the evolution of the symphony and Beethoven's legacy.
Overt borrowings from Beethoven--for instance, the lyrical subject matter within the Finale of Brahms' First Symphony, so just like the "Ode to pleasure" subject matter in Beethoven's Ninth--have usually been the topic of feedback. Bonds now indicates us how composers imitate or allude to a Beethoven topic or compositional process accurately in an effort to draw back from it, making a new musical resolution. Berlioz's Harold en Italie, Mendelssohn's Lobgesang, Schumann's Fourth Symphony, Brahms' First, and Mahler's Fourth function illuminating examples. dialogue specializes in such center concerns as Beethoven's concepts in formal layout, the position of textual content and voice, fusion of various genres, cyclical coherence of routine, and the functionality of the symphonic finale.
Bonds lucidly argues that the good symphonists of the 19th century cleared inventive area for themselves via either confronting and deviating from the practices in their possibly overpowering precursor. His research areas time-honored masterpieces in a brand new gentle.
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Additional info for After Beethoven: The Imperative of Originality in the Symphony
3o Unfortunately, the nineteenth century's belief in the metaphysical qualities of instrumental music often makes for maddening criticism. Writers were rarely able to elucidate the nature of instrumental music's "spiritual ideas" Z9. See, for example, Hans Georg Nägeli, Vorlesunjim über Musik (Stuttgart and Tübingen, i8z6; reprint, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1983), p. 19; Adolph KuUak, Das Musikalisch-Schöne: Ein Beitrag zur Aesthetik der Tonkunst (Leipzig: Heinrich Matthes, 1858), pp.
He returns under the cover, so to speak, of a string quartet, a medium in which the viola is traditionally brigands. To varying degrees, Beedioven's quotaüons of prcceding themes are also less than literal. SINFONIA 38 ANTI-EROICA Allegro frenetico solo via. I II*! 5 Berlioz, Harold en Italie/iv, m. 46-55: Reminiscence of the Mountaineer's Serenade from the third movement poco ritenuto solo via. i vlns^ p 1. )T r'r r r r r Tempo I. coo fuoco 1 1 r m 11 = mjp vlas. + vlc. 6 Berlioz, Harold m Ita,lie/i\, m.
1 2 5 ; Berlioz, Correspondance Generale (hereafter CG), vol. 4, ed. Pierre Citron (Paris: Flammarion, 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 1 8 4 (letter of 3 er 4 July 1852,). 6. See Memoirs, chaps. 3 6 and 40. Just prior to leaving for Italy, he wrote: "During my exile, I will endeavor to write something big" ( C G I, 3 9 6 , letter of 3 0 December 1 8 3 0 ) . 7. Memoirs, pp. 1 8 6 - 1 8 7 , 1 8 9 - 1 9 0 . See also Glyn Court, "Berlioz and Byron and Harold in Italy," Music Review 1 7 ( 1 9 5 6 ) : 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ; Holoman, Berlioz, p.
After Beethoven: The Imperative of Originality in the Symphony by Mark Evan Bonds