By Monique L'Huillier
This reference grammar combines the simplest of contemporary and standard ways. Its target isn't just sensible mastery of the language, yet familiarity with its constitution. The Grammar takes complete account of contemporary linguistic learn, yet with out over the top emphasis on formalism. It presents various examples according to the author's personal event of educating French to English audio system. The norms of "correct expression" are given including present utilization and deviations. a considerable index of French and English phrases and of themes presents quick access to the textual content itself.
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Extra info for Advanced French Grammar
Je mange. – with a change of meaning: Ex: Il boit de la bière → He’s drinking beer. Il boit → either: He is drinking (sth). or: He has a drink problem. Elle écrit un roman → She’s writing a novel. Elle écrit → either: She is writing (sth). or: She writes (as a job). 3 SYNTAX AND GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS Some transitive direct verbs cannot be used without an object (= verbes à prédication incomplète). Ex: *Je quitte → Je quitte mon bureau. e. with a preposition (the indirect object is a prepositional phrase): VP = V + PP Ex: Catherine a parlé à Paul.
Hesitation) Pouah! Berk! (disgust) Zut! Merde! (annoyance) Attention! (warning) Dommage! Hélas! (regret) – more than one word: Ex: A demain! Au secours! Grands Dieux! Nom d’un chien! Nom d’une pipe! (ii) Labels, book titles, advertisements, newspaper headlines, etc. ’ (iii) Semantic ellipsis Semantic ellipsis is a way of making an utterance shorter, but still understandable to the interlocutor. Ellipsis of the verb or even subject + verb is used in conversation as a matter of course. Ex: Tout droit!
4 above, the above examples show that even with the same meaning, a verb is not limited to one particular construction. 6 Bitransitive verbs ( verbes bitransitifs) The verb can be followed by a direct object + indirect object, or two indirect objects (the second one is also called complément d’attribution or complément d’objet second). Hence: VP = V + NP/E + PP or (i) V + PP + PP V + NP + PP – The PP can be introduced by de. For instance: équiper qn de qch recevoir qch de qn charger qn de qch penser qch de qn couvrir qn/qch de qch dire qch de qn menacer qn de qch éloigner qn/qch de qn/qch remplir qch de qch entourer qn/qch de qch Ex: Nous allons entourer le jardin de haies.
Advanced French Grammar by Monique L'Huillier