By William E. Harkins, Marie Hynková
How you can communicate Czech.
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Extra resources for A Modern Czech Grammar
However, NP's with common noun heads allow a considerable amount of pre- and post-modification, as in (6-9): 6. ) 7. ) 8. ) 9. akiyyu def-clever-noun al-fuqara:'i def-poor-gen ma:tu: died-3m-pl najaHna succeeded-3f-pl rija:lin ind-men-gen Subject in Arabic 21 While the head word governs types of agreement between the NP and the verbal group, case markers designating clausal function of the NP may appear on all of the elements or only on some of them. In (6), the head word (al-waladu - the boy) controls the gender of the verbal suffix while the nominative case marker (-u) appears on the whole NP (al-waladu al-qakiyyu - the clever boy).
10. it is the NP that is absent in passive correlates of active sentences. 11. it is the NP that is obligatorily deleted in the second conjunct if it is coreferential with the SUBJECT NP in the first conjunct since they have the same grammatical relation in their respective conjuncts, as in (qa:bala zaydun maryama wa 9asaqaha: - Zeid met Mary and fell in love with her). 12. it is the NP that is indicated by a suffix on the verb in the subordinate clause. This suffix indicates whether the SUBJECT of the two clauses are the same or different, as in (sallama zaydun 9ala: maryama 9indama: ka:na ya9buru al-sa:ri9a Zeid greeted Mary when he was crossing the road) or (sallama zaydun 9ala: maryama 9indama: ka:nat ta9buru al-sa:ri9a Zeid greeted Mary when she was crossing the road).
Their simple criteria of nominative marking and initial occurrence are inexact because there are cases in which the postverbal SUBJECT NP 1 is not the Agent' of the action denoted by the verb but rather affected by it and there are cases in which the initial NP 1 is the Agent' of the action denoted by the verb. There are also cases where the NP 1 is in the accusative case (when it occurs after / I I Subject in Arabic 39 'innaf) rather than in the nominative case but it is the'Agent' of the action denoted by the verb.
A Modern Czech Grammar by William E. Harkins, Marie Hynková