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However, in order to provide a truly eco-friendly process, syntheses without solvent or in dry-media conditions are also described with reactants and/or catalysts impregnated on a solid microwave-absorbing support such as alumina or silica (Polshettiwar, 2008). In the field of carbohydrate chemistry, reactions under microwave (MW) assistance are usually achieved with saccharides in suspension or in solution in solvent and/or liquid reagents. Highly secured MW reactors, operating in batch or continuous flow conditions, are nowadays available for chemistry.

However, the tendency of boronates to dehydrate and/or oligomerize to Boron-Carbohydrate Interactions 41 varying degrees depending on their solvation can complicate MS analysis of boronatecarbohydrate esters. [31] While other techniques are used in the study of boron-polyol complexes, those mentioned here are among the most common routinely used in the field today. 3. 1. [33] The affinity of mono-boronates for glucose is low at physiologic pH, but bis-boronates offer a substantial improvement in binding affinity.

Boron acids and possible esters with ethylene glycol. Boron-Carbohydrate Interactions 39 Boric and boronic acids can form either neutral or anionic esters depending on the pH. Diol binding by boron acids is favoured at basic pH, while esterification of boron by hydroxycarboxylic acids is favoured in acidic pH ranges. Borinic acids can only form anionic borinate esters upon dehydrative condensation with a diol or divalent ligand. Boric acid can also form an anionic, tetrahedral diester with diols and related divalent ligands (Figure 2).

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A Large Low-Pressure AHTR [sm article]

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