New PDF release: A Comparative Grammar of Modern Aryan Languages of India

By John Beames

Работа по сравнительной грамматике арийских языков Индии - панджаби, синдхи, гуджарати, хинди, ория, маратхи и бенгали. Каждый язык даётся своим алфавитом.
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Others have been made up. The lexicostatistic classification often uses the term for ‘man’ but in many cases the form used is found in only some of the languages of the group to which it is applied. For instance, subgroup WJa was labelled ‘Ngumpin’, although this form is only found in one of the four languages in the subgroup (WJa3, Gurindji); I have avoided such inappropriate labels. In writing this volume I have attempted to make use of all available sources on each language. For a number of languages there is a full or fullish grammar of good or quite good quality, or else one or more important papers.

Wadha-wurrung (my Ta2) was spoken immediately to the south of Jaja-wurrung, around Lal Lal, Buntingdale and Ballarat. Wadha-wurrung and Jaja-wurrung share about 45 per cent general vocabulary but show considerable grammatical differences, suggesting that they would not have been 6 The language situation in Australia intelligible, and belonged to distinct languages. This inference is supported by a report of E. S. Parker, Assistant Protector of Aborigines at Franklingford, who states that Rev. Mr Tuckfield from Buntingdale preached to his wards on 2 May 1842 but ‘the Widouro [Wadha-wurrung] language, I found, was understood only by a few [bilingual] people, and Mr Tuckfield, who is acquainted only with that language, could not be understood by the majority.

Or else something between one and six languages. In instances like this, where the data are scanty, inferences have to be tentative. ’ when full documentation is available. 4 Prehistory 7 nent the documentation is patchy. As a result, our estimate of the number of languages (recognised on linguistic, rather than on political, criteria) spoken in Australia at the time of the European invasion must be in the form of a range – probably somewhere between about 230 and about 300. There may, in addition, have been a few languages for which nothing was recorded.

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A Comparative Grammar of Modern Aryan Languages of India by John Beames

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