By Sami Franssila
An intensive creation to 3D laser microfabrication know-how, best readers from the basics and conception to its numerous effective functions, akin to the iteration of tiny gadgets or three-d constructions in the bulk of obvious materials.The e-book additionally offers new theoretical fabric on dielectric breakdown, permitting a greater realizing of the diversities among optical harm on surfaces and contained in the bulk, in addition to a glance into the future.Chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists and engineers will locate this a important resource of interdisciplinary wisdom within the box of laser optics and nanotechnology.
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Additional info for 3D Laser Microfabrication: Principles and Applications
Ii) Things we do not know include how the laser–matter interaction proceeds in three-dimensional space. This includes the relation between an axially-symmetric focused beam and the real 3D distribution of the absorbed energy density, electron density, temperature, and pressure, etc. Furthermore, we do not know how the transition to spherical symmetry at high intensity occurs. We do not know the real shape of the cavity, the exact phase state and the distribution in space of the laser-modified material, which will be important for the formation of a 3D photonic crystal (iii) On the basis of knowledge gained from existing experimental and theoretical studies we can predict semi-quantitatively (with an accuracy in the range 40–50%) the result of the laser–matter interaction at high intensity (~ 1014 W cm–2); the size of the cavity (not its shape); and the possible material changes (very approximate range for density and refraction index changes).
The polymerization threshold was found to be less than half the boiling threshold. At the threshold of photomodification (polymerization–solidification) the size of the affected area was found to be less than 200 nm. The reason why the affected area is less than the Gausian beam waist radius relates to the quadratic dependence of two-photon absorption on laser intensity. 5 1013 W cm–2). The author’s analysis suggests that the absorption was very low, even at such a high intensity. 4 Photorefractive Effect The refractive index can be changed locally as a result of photo-refraction .
67 10–12 s. The shock wave leaves the heat wave behind at the time when electrons transfer their energy to ions. This time comprises ten = (men)–1 = 200 picoseconds. 22 T0. 74 1011 Pa. This pressure considerably exceeds the cold silica modulus which is of the order of P0 ~ 1010 Pa. Therefore, a strong shock wave emerges, which compresses the material up to a density q ~ q0 (c + 1)/(c – 1) ~ 2q0 (c ~ 3 is the adiabatic constant for cold glass). 4 Laser–Solid Interaction at High Intensity The material behind the shock wavefront can be compressed and transformed to another phase state in such high-pressure conditions.
3D Laser Microfabrication: Principles and Applications by Sami Franssila